C1 level learners can use a variety of fixed expressions (many of which are prepositional phrases) in the front position for focus. At this level many fixed expressions are used by learners non-literally for focus.

C1 50x33   At the end of the day, everything is up to you! (Cambridge English: Advanced; Greek)

C1 50x33   All in all, the activity week was a nice experience for both students and teachers. (Cambridge English: Advanced; Greek)

C1 50x33   All things considered, I would recommend the third proposal as it seems to me that it covers most of the points the students have been complaining about. (Cambridge English: Advanced; Italian)

C1 50x33   When it comes down to it, who does not like such a surprise? (Cambridge English: Advanced; Portuguese)

Learners at this level can also use imperatives as pointing devices within texts for focus.

C1 50x33   Note the disadvantages of this transfer. (Cambridge English: Advanced; Greek)

C1 50x33   Notice the difference in the salary. (Cambridge English: Advanced; Spanish - Latin American)

C1 50x33   See the written instructions on the phone for complete instruction. (Cambridge English: Advanced; Swedish)

Learners are also able to use the cleft clause What + noun or pronoun + verb phrase as subject + be for focus.

C1 50x33   What I found particularly fascinating about this story is that it is still exciting and thrilling, despite the plot being rather easy to follow. (Cambridge English: Advanced; Greek)

C1 50x33   What companies care about is money and football players help them to earn it. (Cambridge English: Advanced; Catalan)

C1 50x33   What students learn are mostly facts and theories. (Cambridge English: Advanced; Korean)

Learners also use Wh-cleft clauses as titles or subtitles to point to something that follows.

C1 50x33   Why I think this is a good idea
People are sensitive, and when they hear about charities, they always want to help. (Cambridge English: Advanced; Greek)

C1 50x33   How I investigated
First I started looking on the internet in general. (Cambridge English: Business Higher; German)

Finally, learners are able to use a non-finite subordinate clause with an -ed form before a main clause for focus, often in formal, academic or business contexts.

C1 50x33   Compared to other European capitals, there has been a lot done to make riding a bike less dangerous and more comfortable in Berlin. (Cambridge English: Advanced; German)

C1 50x33   Outlined below are some essential reasons which justify my choice and should be seriously considered. (Cambridge English: Advanced; Greek)

So, learners at the C1 level use fixed expressions, imperatives, cleft clauses and non-finite subordinate clauses for focus in their writing. Although this level of skill is impressive, more progress is to be made at the C2 level.

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