On 20 September 2010, Cambridge Journals Online and the English Profile Programme launched the first volume of the online English Profile Journal.  The Journal is freely available to all, and published cutting-edge research that emerged out of the English Profile Programme.

The Journal has now moved, and future papers will be published through this website. Papers will still be peer reviewed with the same rigour as those for the English Profile Journal, and the idea is that papers published on the website will be able to be incorporated ultimately into an English Profile Studies series volume. This series has been very successful and is emerging as a prestigious publishing forum for all things related to the CEFR and English Profile.

Find out more about the English Profile Studies series.

Click here to access the Journal.

Criterial features in L2 EnglishThe English Profile Studies series publishes volumes which explore aspects of the CEFR, English language learning and teaching, and any research which contributes to our understanding of the way learners progress through the six levels of the CEFR. This includes specific case-studies as well as more general explorations of the CEFR, its use/impact, and ways of building on the Framework. The series also presents findings from English Profile research and other related projects, and is designed to be of interest to a wide range of users including teachers, curriculum designers and educational policy-makers, as well as language test developers, academic lecturers and researchers.

The series is jointly produced by Cambridge English Language Assessment and Cambridge University Press. A list of titles in the series can be found below, click on each title to buy.

 
Volume 1: The first in this series of publications is Criterial Features in L2 English by John Hawkins and Luna Filipovic. This volume introduces the concept of criteriality, i.e. the properties of learner language which are characteristic and indicative of L2 proficiency at each level of the CEFR. 

Volume 2: The second volume in the series, Language Functions Revisited by Anthony Green, introduces the theoretical and empirical bases for defining English language learning levels in functional ‘Can Do’ terms. It includes tables mapping the progression from A1 to C2 for English including new 'Can Do' statements, based on the CEFR theoretical model, for the C levels.

Volume 3: Immigrant pupils learn English, by Bronagh Catabusic and David Little. This volume reports on a longitudinal study of the acquisition of English L2 by children from immigrant families in Ireland. The study explored the extent to which these children's L2 development confirmed the learning trajectory hypothesised in the English Language Proficiency Benchmarks (pdf), the officially sanctioned framework developed for Irish primary schools. The Benchmarks are an adaptation of the first three levels (A1 - B1) of the CEFR.

Volume 4: The CEFR in Practice by Brian North. This volume combines an overview of the background and practical impact of the CEFR with a discussion of the contentious and varied debate the framework has provoked. With its knowledgeable insight into the CEFR's inception, development and potential future, this should be a valuable resource for researchers, teachers and policy-makers throughout the language learning profession.

Volume 5, English Profile in Practice, written by members of the English Profile team including Julia Harrison, Annette Capel, Fiona Barker and Ben Knight. This book presents an introduction to English Profile, including the English Vocabulary Profile and the English Grammar Profile, and explains how EP findings can be useful to teachers, syllabus designers and other ELT professionals. It also includes practical suggestions and activities designed to familiarise the user with English Profile.

 


The following bibliography is for anyone interested in the goals and aims of the English Profile programme.  It is a work in progress, so please consult it regularly for updates.  If you have any comments on the bibliography, please feel free to contact us.


English Profile Research Publications

This section includes publications relating to the English Profile Programme, produced by English Profile researchers.

Alexopoulou, T. (2008). Building new corpora for English Profile, Research Notes, 33: 15–19,
    Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Capel, A. (2010). Insights and issues arising from the English Profile Wordlists project, Research
    
Notes, 41: 2-7. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Capel, A. (2009). A1–B2 vocabulary: Insights and issues arising from the English Profile Wordlists
    projects. Paper presented at the English Profile Seminar, Cambridge, 5–6 February 2009.

Green, A. (forthcoming 2012). Language Functions Revisited: Theoretical and Empirical Bases For
     Language Construct Definition Across the Ability Range.
Cambridge:
     UCLES/Cambridge University Press.

Green, A. (2008). English profile: Functional progression in materials for ELT. Research Notes,
    33: 19–25. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Hawkins, J. A. & Buttery, P. (2010). Criterial features in learner corpora: Theory and illustrations,
     English Profile Journal 1 (1). Available online 

Hawkins, J. A. & Buttery, P. (2009). Using learner language from corpora to profile levels of
     proficiency: Insights from the English Profile Programme. In Taylor, L. & Weir, C. J. (Eds).
     Language Testing Matters: Investigating the Wider Social and Educational Impact of
     Assessment,
158-175. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hawkins, J. A. & Filipovic, L. (forthcoming 2012). Criterial Features in L2 English. Cambridge:
     UCLES/Cambridge University Press.


Hendriks, H. (2008). Presenting the English Profile Programme: In search of criterial features.
    Research Notes, 33: 7–10. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.


Kurtes, S. and Saville, N. (2008). The English Profile Programme – An overview. Research Notes,
    33: 2–4. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

McCarthy, M. (2010). Spoken fluency revistited, English Profile Journal 1 (1). Available online 

Salamoura, A. (2008). Aligning English Profile research data to the CEFR. Research Notes,
    33: 5–7. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Salamoura, A. & Saville, N. (2010). Exemplifying the CEFR: Criterial features of written learner
     English from the English Profile Programme. In Bartning, I., Maisa, M. & Vedder, I. (Eds).
     Communicative proficiency and linguistic development: Intersections between SLA and language
     testing research
, Eurosla Monographs Series (1), 101-132. Available online
    
Salamoura, A. and Saville, N. (2009). Criterial features across the CEFR levels: Evidence from
    the English Profile Programme. Research Notes, 37: 34–40. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Saville, N. & Hawkey, R. (2010). The English Profile Programme - the first three years, English
     Profile Journal 1
(1). Available online

General materials


This section includes materials published by English Profile researchers, as well as seminal works that relate to the English Profile research aims and objectives.

Alderson, J. C. (Ed.) (2002). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning,   
Teaching, Assessment – Case studies. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Available online 

Alderson, J. C. (2007). The CEFR and the need for more research. Modern Language Journal, 91 (4),
    659–63.

ALTE (2002). The ALTE Can Do Project (English version). Available online 

ALTE (2005). CEFR Grid for the Analysis of Speaking Tasks (Version 2.0). Available online 

Bachman, L. F. (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University
    Press.

Bachman, L. F. & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language Testing in Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bateman, H. (2009). Some evidence supporting the alignment of an LSP writing test to the CEFR,
    Research Notes, 37: 29–34, Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Briscoe, E., Carroll J. & Watson R. (2006). The second release of the RASP system. In Proceedings of
    the COLING/ACL 2006 Interactive Presentation Sessions. Sydney, Australia. Available online 

Bygate, M. (1988). Speaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching Languages to Young Learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University
    Press.

Canale, M. (1983). On some dimensions of language proficiency. In J. W. Oller, (Ed.), Issues in
    Language Testing Research (pp. 333–42). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language
    teaching and testing, Applied Linguistics, 1: 1–47.

Coste, D. (2007). Contextualising uses of the common European framework of reference for
    languages. Paper presented at Council of Europe Policy Forum on use of the CEFR, Strasbourg
    2007. Available online 

Council of Europe (1998). Modern Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. A Common
    European Framework of Reference. Strasbourg: Language Policy Division.

Council of Europe (2001a). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning,
    Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Council of Europe (2001b). European Language Portfolio (ELP). Strasbourg: Language Policy Division. 
   
Council of Europe (2001c). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning,
    Teaching and Assessment – Guide for Users. J. Trim (Ed.). Strasbourg: Language Policy Division.
    Available online

Council of Europe (2002). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning,
    Teaching, Assessment. Language Examining and Test Development. M. Milanovic (Dir.).
    Strasbourg: Language Policy Division. Available online 

Council of Europe (2003a). Relating Language Examinations to the Common European Framework
    of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment: Manual, Preliminary Pilot Version.
    Strasbourg: Language Policy Division. 
   
Council of Europe (2003b). Relating Language Examinations to the Common European Framework
    of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment: Manual, Overview of Preliminary
    Pilot Version. Strasbourg: Language Policy Division. Available online 

Council of Europe (2003c). Samples of Oral Production Illustrating, for English, the Levels of the
    Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Strasbourg: Language Policy Division. 
   
Council of Europe (2004). Reference Supplement to the Preliminary Pilot Version of the Manual
    for Relating Language Examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference.
    Strasbourg: Language Policy Division. Available online 

Council of Europe (2008). Explanatory Notes to Recommendation CM/Rec (2008)7 of the Committee of
    Ministers to Member States Concerning the Use of the Common European Framework of Reference 
    for Languages (CEFR) and the Promotion of Plurilingualism. Available online

Council of Europe (2009). Relating Language Examinations to the Common European Framework of
    Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR). A Manual. Strasbourg:
    Language Policy Division. Available online 

Crossthwaite, P. (2012). Learner Corpus Linguistics in the EFL Classroom. PASAA - A Journal of LanguageTeaching and Learning in Thailand (44). Available online

Douglas, D. (2000). Assessing Languages for Specific Purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University
    Press.

Figueras, N. & Noijons, J. (Eds.) (2009). Linking to the CEFR levels: Research Perspectives. Arnhem:
    Cito/EALTA.

Figueras, N., North, B., Takala, S., Verhelst, N. & Van Avermaet, P. (2005). Relating examinations
    to the Common European Framework: a manual. Language Testing, 22 (3): 261–79.

Fulcher, G. (2004). Deluded by artifices? The Common European Framework and Harmonization.
    Language Assessment Quarterly, 1 (4): 253–66.

Galaczi, E. & ffrench, A. (2007). Developing revised assessment scales for Main Suite and BEC
    speaking tests. Research Notes, 30: 28–31. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Galaczi, E. & Khalifa, H. (2009). Cambridge ESOL’s CEFR DVD of speaking performances: What’s the
    story? Research Notes, 37: 23–9. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Grabe, W. & Kaplan, R. B. (1996). Theory and Practice of Writing: An Applied Linguistic Perspective.
    Longman: London.

Jones, N. (2000). Background to the validation of the ALTE Can Do project and the revised
    Common European Framework. Research Notes, 2: 11–13. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Jones, N. (2001). The ALTE Can Do Project and the role of measurement in constructing a
    proficiency framework. Research Notes, 5: 5–8. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Jones, N. (2002). Relating the ALTE framework to the Common European Framework of
    Reference. In J. C. Alderson (Ed.), pp. 167–83.

Jones, N. (2005). Raising the languages ladder: Constructing a new framework for accrediting
    foreign language skills. Research Notes, 19: 15–19. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Jones, N. (2009a). A comparative approach to constructing a multilingual proficiency framework:
    Constraining the role of standard setting. In N. Figueras & J. Noijons (Eds.), pp. 35–43.

Jones, N. (2009b). A comparative approach to constructing a multilingual proficiency framework:
    Constraining the role of standard setting. Research Notes, 37: 6–9. Cambridge: Cambridge
    ESOL.

Jones, N. & Saville, N. (2009). European language policy: Assessment, learning and the CEFR.
    Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 29, pp. 51–63.

Kaftandjieva, F. (2004). Standard setting. Section B, Reference Supplement to the Preliminary
    Pilot version of the Manual for Relating Language examinations to the Common European
    Framework of Reference for Languages: learning, teaching, assessment. Strasbourg:
    Council of Europe. Available online 

Khalifa, H. & ffrench, A. (2009). Aligning Cambridge ESOL examinations to the CEFR: Issues and
    practice, Research Notes, 37: 10–14. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Khalifa, H. & Weir, C. (2009). Examining reading: Research and practice in assessing second
    language reading. Studies in Language Testing. Volume 29. Cambridge: UCLES &
    Cambridge University Press.

Levelt, W. J. M. (1989). Speaking: from intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Little, D. (2007). The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Perspectives on the
    Making of Supranational Language Education Policy. The Modern Language Journal, 91 (4): 645–55.

Maris, G. (2009). Standard Setting from a Psychometric Point of View. In N. Figueras & J.
    Noijons (Eds.), pp. 59–65.

Martyniuk, W. (2008). Relating language examinations to the Council of Europe’s Common
    European Framework of Reference for Languages. In L. Taylor & C. J. Weir (Eds.), pp. 9–20.

Martyniuk, W. (Ed.) (forthcoming). Relating language examinations to the Common European
    Framework of Reference for Languages: Case studies and reflections on the use of the
    Council of Europe’s Draft Manual. Studies in Language Testing. Volume 33. Cambridge:
    UCLES & Cambridge University Press.

McCarthy, M. & Saville, N. (2009). Profiling English in the real world: What learners and teachers can
    tell us about what they know. Paper presented at American Association for Applied Linguistics
    Conference. Denver, Colorado, March 21–24 2009.

McNamara, T. F. & Roever, C. (2006). Language Testing: The Social Dimension. Oxford: Blackwell.

Milanovic, M. (2009). Cambridge ESOL and the CEFR. Research Notes, 37: 2–5. Cambridge:
    Cambridge ESOL.

Morrow, K. (Ed.) (2004). Insights from the Common European Framework. Oxford: Oxford
    University Press.

North, B. (Ed.) (1992). Transparency and Coherence in Language Learning in Europe: Objectives,
    Assessment and Certification. Symposium held in Ruschlikon, Switzerland, 10–16 November 1991.
    Strasbourg: Council for Cultural Cooperation.

North, B. (2000). The Development of a Common Framework Scale of Language Proficiency.
    New York: Peter Lang.

North, B. (2002). A CEF-based self assessment tool for university entrance. In J. C. Alderson (Ed.),
    pp. 146–66.

North, B. (2004). Relating assessments, examinations, and courses to the CEF. In K. Morrow (Ed.),
    pp. 77–90.

North, B. (2006). The Common European Framework of Reference: Development, Theoretical
    and Practical Issues. Paper presented at the symposium A New Direction in Foreign
    Language Education: The Potential of the Common European Framework of Reference
    for Languages. Osaka University of Foreign Studies, Japan, March 2006.

North, B. (2007a). The CEFR Illustrative Descriptor Scales. The Modern Language Journal, 91 (4):
    656–59.

North, B. (2007b). The CEFR Levels: Key points and key problems. Paper presented at the 23rd
    ALTE Conference, Sevres, 18 April 2007.

North, B. (2008). The CEFR levels and descriptor scales, in L. Taylor & C. Weir (Eds.), pp. 21–66.

North, B. & Hughes, G. (2003). CEF Performance Samples. English (Swiss Adult Learners).
    Available online

North, B. & Jones, N. (2009). Further Material on Maintaining Standards Across Languages, Contexts
    and Administrations by exploiting Teacher Judgment and IRT Scaling. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

North, B. & Schneider, G. (1998). Scaling descriptors for language proficiency scales. Language
    Testing, 15: 217–62.

O’Sullivan, B. (2006). Issues in testing business English: The revision of the Cambridge
    Business English Certificates. In Studies in Language Testing. Volume 17.
    Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL & Cambridge University Press.

Papp, S. (2007). The Cambridge YLE tests in the light of cognitive, linguistic, educational,
    social-psychological and cultural aspects of children’s L2 development and the CEFR.
    Internal Cambridge ESOL report.

Papp, S. (2008). Quantitative linking YLE to the CEFR – summary of empirical studies to
    date. Internal Cambridge ESOL report.

Papp, S. & Salamoura, A. (2009). An exploratory study linking young learners examinations
    to the CEFR. Research Notes, 37: 15–22. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Parodi, T. (2008). L2 morpho-syntax and learner strategies. Paper presented at the Cambridge
    Institute for Language Research Seminar. Cambridge, 8 December 2008.

Saville, N. (2003). The process of test development and revision within UCLES EFL. In C.
    Weir & M. Milanovic (Eds.), pp. 57–120.

Saville, N. (2005). An interview with John Trim at 80. Language Assessment Quarterly, 2
    (4): 263–88.

Shaw, S. and Weir, C. J. (2007). Examining Second Language Writing: Research and
    Practice. In Studies in Language Testing. Volume 26. Cambridge: UCLES & Cambridge
    University Press.

Shohamy, E. (2000). Assessment. In M. Celce-Murcia & E. Olshtain (Eds.). Discourse and
    Context in Language Teaching (pp. 201–15). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

St John, M.-J. (2004). IELTS Cambridge ESOL examinations and the Common European
    Framework. Research Notes, 18: 2–3. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Taylor, L. and Jones, N. (2006). Cambridge ESOL exams and the Common European
    Framework of Reference (CEFR). Research Notes, 24: 2–5. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Taylor, L. and Weir, C. (Eds.) Multilingualism and Assessment. In Studies in Language
    Testing. Volume 27. Cambridge: UCLES & Cambridge University Press.

Trim, J. L. M. (Ed.). (1978). Some possible lines of development of an overall structure
    for a European unit/credit scheme for foreign language learning by adults. Strasbourg:
    Council of Europe.

Trim, J. L. M. (Ed.) (1981). Modern Languages (1971–1981). Strasbourg: Council for
    Cultural Cooperation.

Trim, J. L. M. (Ed.) (2001a). Common European Framework of Reference for languages:
    learning, teaching and assessment – Guide for Users. Available online 

Trim, J. L. M. (2001b). Breakthrough. Unpublished manuscript. University of Cambridge
    ESOL Examinations (2006) BEC Vantage Information for Candidates. Cambridge: UCLES.

Trim, J. L. M. (2007a). First Certificate in English Handbook for teachers. Cambridge: UCLES.

Trim, J. L. M. (2007b). Preliminary English Test Handbook for teachers. Cambridge: UCLES.

Trim, J. L. M. (2008a). Certificate in Advanced English Handbook for teachers. Cambridge:
    UCLES.

Trim, J. L. M. (2008b). Certificate of Proficiency in English Handbook for teachers. Cambridge:
    UCLES.

Trim, J. L. M. (2008c). Key English Test Handbook for teachers, Cambridge: UCLES.

van Ek, J. (1981) Specification of communicative objectives. In J. L. M. Trim (Ed.).

van Ek, J. (1987). Objectives for foreign language learning: Vol. II Levels. Strasbourg:
    Council of Europe.

van Ek, J. and Trim, J. L. M. (1990a/1998a). Threshold 1990. Cambridge: Cambridge
    University Press.

van Ek, J. and Trim, J. L. M. (1990b/1998b). Waystage 1990. Cambridge: Cambridge
    University Press.

van Ek, J. and Trim, J. L. M. (2001). Vantage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Weir, C. J. (2005a). Limitations of the Council of Europe’s Framework of reference (CEFR)
    in developing comparable examinations and tests. Language Testing, 22 (3): 281–300.

Weir, C. J. (2005b). Language Testing and Validation: An Evidence-Based Approach.
    Oxford: Palgrave.

Weir, C. J. & Milanovic, M. (Eds.). (2003). Continuity and innovation: revising the Cambridge
    Proficiency in English Examination 1913–2002. In Studies in Language Testing. Volume 15,
    Cambridge: UCLES & Cambridge University Press.

Wilkins, D. A. (1976). Notional syllabuses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wilkins, D. A. (1978). Proposal for Levels Definition. In J. L. M. Trim (Ed.). 71–8.


Fluency in Speaking

Fluency in speaking is one of the criteria that feature in the descriptions of the higher levels of the Common European Framework of Reference. At B2 level, the learner should be able to produce language ‘with a fairly even tempo’ and ‘few noticeably long pauses’ (Council of Europe, 2001: 28). Also at the B2 level, the learner ideally can ‘interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party’ (ibid., p.24). The C2 user is characterised as being able to speak ‘so smoothly that the interlocutor is hardly aware of it.’ (ibid., p.28). However, fluency in speaking is not a well-defined or well-understood notion in applied linguistics, with many and varied approaches appearing in the literature. The English Profile project hopes to adopt an interactive approach to spoken fluency and bases its understanding on spoken corpus evidence from native- and expert-users of English as well as learners at all levels. The bibliography includes the main works that have influenced the research to date.

Bialystok, E. (1982). On the relationship between knowing and using linguistic forms. Applied
    Linguistics, 3 (3):181–206.

Boers, F., Eyckmans, J., Kappel, J., Stengers, H., & Demecheleer, M. (2006). Formulaic
    sequences and perceived oral proficiency: putting a lexical approach to the test. Language
    Teaching Research, 10 (3): 245–61.

Carter, R. A. & McCarthy, M. J. (1995). Grammar and the spoken language. Applied Linguistics,
    16 (2): 141–58. 

Carter, R. A. & McCarthy, M. J. (1997). Exploring Spoken English. Cambridge: Cambridge
    University Press.

Carter, R. A. & McCarthy, M. J. (2006). Cambridge Grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge
    University Press.

Chambers, F. (1998). What do we mean by fluency? System, 25 (4): 535–44.

Conklin, K. & Schmitt, N. (2008). Formulaic sequences: are they processed more quickly than
    nonformulaic language by native and nonnative speakers? Applied Linguistics, 29 (1):72–89.

Council of Europe (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning,
    Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The Psychology of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University
    Press.

Evison, J. & McCarthy, M. J. (forthcoming). Social talk. In A. Barron & K. Schneider (Eds.),
    Pragmatics of Discourse. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Evison, J., McCarthy, M. J. & O’Keeffe, A. (2007). ‘Looking out for love and all the rest of it’:
    Vague category markers as shared social space. In J. Cutting (Ed.), Vague Language
    Explored (pp. 138–57). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Fillmore, C. J. (1979). On Fluency. In C. J. Fillmore, D. Kempler & W. Wang (Eds.), Individual
    Differences in Language Ability and Language Behavior (pp. 85-101). New York: Academic
    Press.

Gatbonton, E. & Segalowitz, N. (1988). Creative automatization: principles for promoting fluency
    within a communicative framework. TESOL Quarterly, I(3): 473–92.

Giles, H., Coupland, J. & Coupland, N. (1991). Contexts of Accommodation: Developments in
    Applied Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Goldman-Eisler, F. (1968). Psycholinguistics: Experiments in Spontaneous Speech. London and
    New York: Academic Press.

Hasselgreen, A. (2004). Testing the Spoken English of Young Norwegians: A Study of Test
    Validity and the Role of ‘Smallwords’ in Contributing to Pupils’ Fluency. Cambridge: Cambridge
    University Press.

Hieke, A. E. (1985). A componential approach to oral fluency evaluation. The Modern Language
    Journal, 69 (2): 135–42.

Kormos, J. & Dénes, M. (2004). Exploring measures and perceptions of fluency in the speech of
    second language learners. System, 32 (2): 145–64.

Lennon, P. (1990). Investigating fluency in EFL: a quantitative approach. Language Learning, 40
    (3): 387–417.

McCarthy, M. J. (1998). Spoken Language and Applied Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge
    University Press.

McCarthy, M. J. (2003). Talking back: ‘small’ interactional response tokens in everyday conversation.
    Research on Language in Social Interaction, 36 (1): 33–63.

McCarthy, M. J. (2010). Rethinking spoken fluency. Estudios de lingüística inglesa aplicada
    (Universidad de Sevilla), 9: 11–29.

McCarthy, M. J. (2008). Profiling spoken fluency. The Language Teacher, 32 (7): 32–4.

McCarthy, M. J. & O’Keeffe, A. (2009). Corpora and spoken language. In A. Lüdeling & M.
    Kytö (Eds.) Corpus Linguistics: An International handbook. Volume 2 (pp. 1008–24).
    Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.

O’Keeffe, A., McCarthy, M. J. & Carter, R. A. (2007). From Corpus to Classroom. Cambridge:
    Cambridge University Press.

Prodromou, L. (2008). English as a Lingua Franca. London: Contimuum.

Riggenbach, H. (1991). Towards an understanding of fluency: A microanalysis of nonnative
    speaker conversations. Discourse Processes, 14: 423–41.

Rossiter, M. J. (2009). Perceptions of L2 fluency by native and non-native speakers of English.
    Canadian Modern Language Review, 65 (3): 395–412.

Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A. & Jefferson, G. (1974). A simplest systematics for the organisation of
    turn-taking for conversation. Language, 50 (4): 696–735.

Schegloff, E. A. (1996). Turn organization: One intersection of grammar and interaction. In E. Ochs,
    E. Schegloff, and S. Thompson (Eds.) Interaction and Grammar (pp. 52–133). Cambridge:
    Cambridge University Press.

Stivers, T., Enfield, N. J., Brown, P., Englert, C., Hayashi, M., Heinemann, T., Hoymann, G., Rossano,
    F., de Ruiter, J. P., Yoon, K.-E., & Levinson, S. C. (2009). Universals and cultural variation in
    turn-taking in conversation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (26):
    10587–92.

Tao, H. (2003). Turn initiators in spoken English: A corpus-based approach to interaction and
    grammar. In P. Leistyna & C. F. Meyer (Eds.) Corpus Analysis: Language Structure and Language
    Use (pp. 187–207). Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Tao, H. & McCarthy, M. J. (2001). Understanding non-restrictive which-clauses in spoken English,
    which is not an easy thing. Language Sciences, 23: 651–77.

Tauroza, S & Allison, D. (1990). Speech rates in British English. Applied Linguistics, 11(1): 90–105.

Towell, R. (1987). Variability and progress in the language development of advanced learners of
    a foreign language. In R. Ellis (Ed.) Second Language Acquisition in Context (pp. 113–27).
    Toronto: Prentice-Hall.

Towell, R., Hawkins, R., & Bazergui, N. (1996). The development of fluency in advanced learners
    of French. Applied Linguistics, 17 (1): 84–119.

Walsh, S., O’Keeffe, A. & McCarthy, M. J. (2008). ‘... post-colonialism, multi-culturalism, structuralism,
    feminism, post-modernism and so on and so forth’: a comparative analysis of vague category
    markers in academic discourse. In A. Ädel & R. Reppen (Eds.) Corpora and Discourse (pp. 9–29).
    Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Watts, R. J. (1989). Taking the pitcher to the ‘well’: native speakers’ perception of their use of
    discourse markers in conversation. Journal of Pragmatics 13: 203–37.

Wood, D. (2001). In search of fluency: what is it and how can we teach it? Canadian Modern
    Language Review, 57 (4): 573–89.

Wood, D. (2006). Uses and functions of formulaic sequences in second language speech: An
    exploration of the foundations of fluency. Canadian Modern Language Review, 63 (1): 13–33.

Wolf, J. P. (2008). The effects of backchannels on fluency in L2 oral task production. System, 36
    (2): 279–94.

 

English Profile Data Contributors' Map


The English Profile Programme would like to thank the following Network Partners for their valuable contribution to our data collection process:

 colegio Newlands

Colegio Newlands
Buenos Aires
ARGENTINA
www.colegionewlands.com

 

Parhamergymnasium
Vienna
AUSTRIA

 

Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel (University College Brussels)
Brussels
BELGIUM
www.hubrussel.be/english

Universidad Chileno-Británica de Cultura
Santiago
CHILE
www.ubritanica.cl

 

Department of English
Palacký University
Olomouc
CZECH REPUBLIC
www.upol.cz

 

Masaryk University
Brno
CZECH REPUBLIC
www.muni.cz

 

Fachholchschule Koln
Cologne
GERMANY
www.fh-koeln.de

 

Mary Immaculate College
Limerick
IRELAND
www.mic.ul.ie

 

Shannon College of Hotel Management
Shannon
IRELAND
www.shannoncollege.com

 

ATL Coop Lombardia
Cantù
ITALY

 

Talk Tefl Support Centre
Gorgan
IRAN

IESIES

Iran Educational Services (IES) 
Mashhad
Iran
www.iraneduservices.ir

NFS Tom Nagoya University of Foreign Studies
Nagoya
JAPAN
www-e.nufs.ac.jp
 

Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
Tokyo
JAPAN
www.tufs.ac.jp/index-e.html

 

Vilnius Pedagogical University
Vilnius
LITHUANIA

 

FON University
Skopje
MACEDONIA
www.fon.edu.mk

 

Institute of East Slavonic languages
University of Silesia
POLAND
http://english.us.edu.pl/faculty-philology

 

Wyzsza Szkola Lingwistyczna
POLAND
www.wsl.edu.pl/

 Escola Superior de Portalagre

Escola Superior de Educacao de Portalegre
PORTUGAL

 

Babes-Bolyai University
Cluj-Napoca
ROMANIA
http://www.ubbcluj.ro

 

Banat University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine
Department of Training
Timisoara
ROMANIA
www.usab-tm.ro

 

Department Of Programmes, Performance, Schools and Pre-School Education
The Romanian Ministry Of Education Research And Innovation,
Bucharest
ROMANIA

 ovidius

Liceul Teoretic 'Ovidius'
Str. Basarabi Nr.2
Constanta
ROMANIA

 

Moscow Institute of Foreign Languages
Moscow
RUSSIA
www.gaudeamus.ru/eng/main.htm

 

Milan Milanovic - regional coordinator

SERBIA

 

International University of Novi Pazar
Novi Pazar
SERBIA

 

Faculty of Economics: www.ekfak.kg.ac.yu
and:
Faculty of Philology and Arts (FILUM): www.filum.kg.ac.rs
Kragujevac University
SERBIA

 

Faculty of Business Valjevo
Singidunum University
Valjevo
SERBIA
www.singidunum.ac.yu

 

Faculty of Law and Business,
Novi Sad University,
Novi Sad,
SERBIA
www.useens.net

 

Megatrend University
Belgrade
SERBIA
www.megatrend.edu.rs

 

Faculty of Information Technology
and:
Faculty of Sports and Tourism
Metropolitan University Belgrade
Belgrade
SERBIA
www.fit.edu.yu

 

Technical College Cacak
Cacak
SERBIA
www.vstss.com

 

Dept of English Language and Literature
Prešov University
Prešov
SLOVAKIA
www.unipo.sk

 

El Colegio Leonardo Da Vinci
Madrid
SPAIN

 

Escuela Oficial de Idiomas
Burgos
SPAIN

  Escuela Oficial de Idiomas
Puente de Vallecas
SPAIN

Department of English Studies
Faculty of Philology
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
SPAIN
www.ucm.es

 

Department of Applied Linguistics
Universidad Politécnica de Valencia
Alcoy (Alicante)
SPAIN
www.upv.es

 

University of Bedfordshire
Bedford
UNITED KINGDOM
http://www.beds.ac.uk

Newcastle University
School of Education, Communication and Language Sciences
UNITED KINGDOM
http://www.ncl.ac.uk/ecls/about/subjectareas/alandtesol.htm

 

Kaplan International Colleges
San Francisco
UNITED STATES

 

4D Content English
Plaza Independencia 830 of 801
Montevideo
URUGUAY
www.4d.edu.uy

 

 

The English Profile research programme was the latest stage in a process dating back to the 1970s, when John Trim and Jan van Ek developed the original Threshold series, the first systematic specification of learning objectives for the English language. This series contributed to the development of the Common European Framework (CEF) and remains a cornerstone of research and materials development in language testing and teaching. 

English Profile builds on this research, working with the functional approach to the CEF level descriptions.  However, the programme is distinguished from previous work in the field through several innovative features:

  • Corpus-based research, giving the programme a new, empirical dimension
  • The incorporation of psycholinguistic considerations, in addition to the more traditional linguistic (grammatical/lexical) features
  • A strong focus on the impact of different first languages and learning contexts and transfer effects

 

Research strands

English Profile is built around three major research strands, forming a coherent long-term research programme:

1. Corpus Linguistics

Working with linguists and computer scientists to investigate the language which learners actually produce at each level. This work is managed by the Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, (DTAL), University of Cambridge.

2. Pedagogy

Focusing on curricula and materials, with particular attention to CEFR levels B2 - C2. This work is managed by the Centre for Research in English Language Learning and Assessment (CRELLA), University of Bedfordshire, headed by Professor Cyril Weir.

3. Assessment

Focusing on how language skills develop, both in terms of learners' knowledge and their ability to use the language. This work is managed by Cambridge English Language Assessment.

 

Research objectives

The starting point for the English Profile team was to fill the gaps left by the Threshold series and other Reference Level Description projects, such as Profile Deutsch.  Existing specifications for English did not go beyond B2, and level A1 was only ever produced in a draft form.  Therefore, a focus on the C levels, both in functional and linguistic terms, was prioritised.

Questions of particular interest included:
•    How do the different kinds of criterial features (lexical semantic, syntactic, discourse etc.) cluster together to define learner profiles in English? Which linguistic features realise which language functions across the CEFR levels?
•    How does the profile of the learner vary depending on their L1? What are the pedagogical implications of such L1 effects for the learning, teaching and assessment of English?
•    Which criterial features can be used as diagnostics of proficiency at the individual learner level?
•    How does learning to speak differ from learning to write/type? What determines communicative success and comprehensibility in these two language modes?
•    What are the similarities and differences between adult and young learners of English developmentally and at each stage of learning?
•    What is the role of learner and learning strategies?
•    How do all the previous factors interact during language learning? How do they predict likely versus less likely patterns of learner output? What type of learning model can accommodate these multi-factor interactions that underpin language learning?

Subcategories

Cambridge University Press