Element FORM/USE: 'NOT' + '-ING' CLAUSE
SuperCat CLAUSES
SubCat subordinated
Lexical Range N/A
Level C1
Cando Can use a non-finite clause, introduced by 'not' + '-ing', to give more information.
Corrected Learner Example Not knowing the North of London very well it took me quite a long time to get there. (Germany; C1 EFFECTIVE OPERATIONAL PROFICIENCY; 2004; German; Pass)

A nine-member family living peacefully in 19th-century England is suddenly shocked by the untimely death of the mother. Not having accepted his wife's death, the father, George, deeply depressed, is left alone to raise his seven children. (Greece; C1 EFFECTIVE OPERATIONAL PROFICIENCY; 2007; Greek; Pass)
Uncorrected Learner Example
Comments N/A

Cambridge University Press