Element FORM/USE: '-ING' CLAUSE
SuperCat CLAUSES
SubCat subordinated
Lexical Range N/A
Level B2
Cando Can use a non-finite clause, introduced by '-ing' before a main clause, to give more information.
Corrected Learner Example Having no choice, I sat down on a bench which was in the middle of the road to wait for the rain to stop. (Brazil; B2 VANTAGE; 1993; Portuguese; Pass)

Using his best smile, Paul asked her if he could sit beside her. (Chile; B2 VANTAGE; 1997; Spanish - Latin American; Pass)

Having analysed the data I have concluded that CTP Translations would suit our company best. (Russia; B2 VANTAGE; 2000; Russian; Pass)
Uncorrected Learner Example
Comments Note negative pattern develops at C1: 'Not knowing the North of London very well it took me quite a long time to get there.' Note also the examples of the perfect form as well here.

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