Element FORM/USE: NON-FINITE WITH '-ING'
SuperCat CLAUSES
SubCat subordinated
Lexical Range N/A
Level B1
Cando Can use a non-finite subordinate clause with 'before' and 'after' + '-ing', before or after a main clause, to refer to time.
Corrected Learner Example Instead I buy books once a month and I read them in the evening before going to bed. (Italy; B1 THRESHOLD; 2005; Italian; Pass)

We can relax after working hard at school. (Vietnam; B1 THRESHOLD; 2009; Vietnamese; Pass)

Before going back home we ate a hot meal in a beautiful restaurant called “Palladium”. (Poland; B1 THRESHOLD; 1999; Polish; Pass)

After having breakfast I started doing my homework. (Spain; B1 THRESHOLD; 2010; Spanish - European; Pass)
Uncorrected Learner Example
Comments The non-finite clauses occur much more frequently after the main clause than before it.

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